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by Michael P Bodman[1]

Abstract

William Tazewell, immigrant to Virginia in 1715 with a prominent descendancy, has long been the subject of American genealogical interest but his origin and ancestry had not been documented. Recently-published visitations, corroborated by wills and deeds, show the Virginia settler’s maternal grandmother to be a member of the family of Reade of Faccombe, Hampshire, which also produced another prominent Virginia settler, Colonel George Reade, a great-grandfather of George Washington, first President of the United States. Colonel George Reade had long been known to have demonstrable medieval ancestry, including lines from King Edward III, through his great-grandmother Frances Dymoke, wife of Sir Thomas Windebank. This article documents the sixteenth- and seventeenth-century generations by which William Tazewell of Virginia shares this medieval ancestry via Windebank, Reade, Kingsmill and Tazewell. It concludes with new heraldic information on the Reade and Tazewell arms.

Foundations (2013) 5: 65-76 © Copyright FMG and the author

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Introduction

In 1715, William Tazewell, a 25 year old English lawyer, immigrated to Virginia, settling in Northampton County on the Eastern Shore. In addition to building up a law practice, he established a plantation, which consisted of about 2,000 acres at the time of his death in 1752.[2] In 1723, he married Sophia,[3] daughter of Henry Harmanson, of Northampton County, by his second wife, Gertrude, daughter of Col. Southey Littleton, of Accomack County. William and Sophia Tazewell became the progenitors of a family of some note. Among his notable Virginian descendants are John Tazewell, who served as clerk of the revolutionary conventions of 1775–76 for the State of Virginia; United States Senator Henry Tazewell (d.1799); and Henry’s son Virginia Governor Littleton Waller Tazewell (d.1860).[4] With the creation of Tazewell County, Virginia in 1799 (named after Senator Henry Tazewell), the surname has been perpetuated in the American political landscape.[5]

Despite long-standing American genealogical interest in this Virginia Tazewell family, William Tazewell’s origin and ancestry has not been established for an American audience.[6] Nevertheless, English material first published in 1874 — annotations to a pedigree of the family extracted from the 1664 Visitation of London — correctly connected the Virginia settler to an armigerous Tazewell or Taswell family of London and Limington, Somerset.[7] New research, presented here for the first time, builds on this identification with further details. William Tazewell’s mother, Ann Kingsmill, was a daughter of Major John Kingsmill of Andover, Hampshire. This John Kingsmill is found in the recently published Visitation of Hampshire of 1686, where his wife is given as Frances, daughter of one Francis Reade of “Facham.”[8] The Reades of Faccombe, Hampshire produced another prominent Virginia settler, Colonel George Reade, a great-grandfather of George Washington, first President of the United States. Through a double marriage of two Reade brothers (including Colonel George Reade’s father) with two daughters of Sir Thomas Windebank of St Martin in the Fields, the Reades have traceable medieval ancestry, including multiple descents from King Edward III.[9] It is now clear that the other Reade-Windebank couple (including the brother of Colonel George Reade’s father) were ancestors, via the Kingsmills, of William Tazewell, who was a double fourth cousin, once removed, of President George Washington, and shared, via the Windebanks, President Washington’s traceable medieval ancestry.[10] Another notable connection of William Tazewell via his Reade ancestry, which is not shared with George Washington, is descent from the Rt Rev Henry Cotton, Bishop of Salisbury (d.1615). The ancestry and connections of William Tazewell of Virginia are illustrated in Figure 1 below


Fig 1.   Ancestry of William Tazewell, connection to George Washington and medieval descent

 

One reason William Tazewell’s own immediate ancestry may not have been carefully remembered in Virginia is the equivocal legacy of his paternal grandfather, James Taswell or Tazewell of London and Limington, who was convicted of barratry and imprisoned; he died in the Fleet Prison, 26 March 1683. Despite this episode which may have been remembered as a scandal, family connections must have benefited young William Tazewell, well-educated and well-married, who came to number among the prominent Virginia gentry of his generation.

The remainder of this article presents, in the style familiar to American genealogical readers, a line of descent from Edward III, briefly sketched, with new information on the generations in the near ancestry of William Tazewell. Early generations of descents from Edward III may be traced in the Complete Peerage, or in American reference works tracing proven medieval ancestries of colonists.[11] One such descent is given below for reference.

Descent of William Tazewell from Edward III

1.    King Edward III (d.1377), m. Philippa of Hainault (d.1369).

2.    Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence (d.1368), m. Elizabeth de Burgh (d.1363).

3.    Philippa (d.1381), m. Edmund de Mortimer, Earl of March (d.1381).

4.    Elizabeth Mortimer (d.1417), m. Sir Henry (‘Hotspur’) Percy (d.1403).

5.    Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland (d.1455), m. Eleanor Neville (d.c.1472/3).

6.    Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland (d.1461), m. Eleanor Poynings (d.1484).

7.    Margaret Percy, m. Sir William Gascoigne (d.1487).

8.    Elizabeth Gascoigne (d.1559), m. Sir George Tailboys (d.1538).

9.    Anne Tailboys, m. Sir Edward Dymoke (d.1566).

10.  Frances Dymoke, m.1556, Sir Thomas Windebank, of Haines Hall, Berkshire, son of Sir Richard Windebank, of Hougham, co. Lincoln, by Margaret, daughter and heiress of Griffith ap Henry.[12] Sir Thomas Windebank was clerk of the signet; occasionally acted as clerk of the Privy Council; knighted, 23 July 1603, by James I; died 24 October 1607.[13] Sir Thomas Windebank’s will, made 23 April 1607 and proved 26 January 1608/9, bequeathed a house in the parish of St Martin in the Fields “to my daughter Anne Reade and to the heires of her bodye lawfully begotten.[14]Frances Ladye Windebanke” made her will on 11 February 1612; it was proved 24 April 1613.[15]

11.  Anne Windebank, sister of Sir Francis Windebank, principal secretary to Charles I of England,[16] married at St Martin in the Fields, co. Middlesex, 3 Sept 1592, Henry Reade, Esq, of the Middle Temple,[17] son and heir of Andrew Reade, Esq, of Faccombe and Lincolnholt, Hampshire. Henry Reade was born in 1566; educated Lincoln College, Oxford 1584, BA 1588; MP for Andover 1589; died 12 April 1647, aged 81; and buried at Faccombe.[18] Henry Reade was among the mourners at the funeral of his father-in-law, Sir Thomas Windebank, and signed his funeral certificate.[19] In St Barnabas Church, Faccombe, there is a splendid funeral monument to Anne (Windebank) Reade: a black marble wall slab in an alabaster frame, attributed to Francis Grigs; it states her parentage, marriage and (surviving) issue, and especially boasts her Dymoke descent.[20] Figure 2 below, drawn by the author’s own hand, illustrates its attention to detail

Fig 2.   Copy of the memorial to Anne Reade in Faccombe church[21]

Fig 2. Copy of the memorial to Anne Reade in Faccombe church
Copyright © 2013 Michael P Bodman


As has been said above, Ann’s sister, Mildred, married, as his second wife, Henry Reade’s younger brother, Robert; their son was Colonel George Reade of Virginia, an ancestor of President George Washington.

12. Francis Reade, Esq, eldest son and heir, baptised at Faccombe, 2 Aug 1609,[22] admitted to the Middle Temple in 1624;[23] married, before 1 May 1636,[24] Frances, daughter of Anthony Shelley, of New Sarum, Wiltshire, Gent,[25] MA, Merton College, Oxford,[26] by Patience, daughter of the Rt Rev Henry Cotton,[27] DD, Oxon,[28] Bishop of Salisbury 1598–1615, chaplain to Queen Elizabeth I, and one of her godsons.[29] Their issue numbered four sons and three daughters.

He is apparently the “Mr Francis Reade” who “dyed att the Bear," and was buried on 6 November 1659, in the parish of St Mary in Reading, Berkshire.[30] In the seventeenth century, the Bear Inn in Reading, was called “Sergeant's Inn, in Fleet-street,” and was connected with the London legal establishment.[31] According to Andrew Coleby, “a riot took place in the autumn [1659] at Faccombe on the Berkshire border, but this time it had been organized by Francis Reade, a royalist, and two of his relations taking the law into their own hands in a property dispute with a neighbour."[32] At any rate, Frances (Shelley) Reade was described as a widow on 22 February 1659/60.[33]

In addition to four sons, three daughters of Francis and Frances (Shelley) Reade were baptised at Faccombe: Frances, baptised 25 March 1637; Anne, baptised 22 March 1637/8; and Bridgett, baptised 3 August 1647.[34] In 1658, Francis Reade was made executor of the will of Anne Woolley of Faccombe, and his children were given legacies.[35] According to the PCC copy of her will, made 14 April 1658, and proved 10 June 1658, Anne Woolley bequeathed “unto my loveing freinds Anne Reade, and Bridgett Reade, Daughters of Francis Reade of faccombe aforesd Esquire ten pounds a piece, And unto the other six children of him said Francis Reade I give twenty shillings a piece Item, I give unto Mr [sic] Francis [sic] Kingsmill, Anne Reade aforesd, and Bridgett Reade aforesaid to each of them one of my small gold rings, and unto the said Bridgett my little iewell . . . “

It appears that the copyist has mistaken the gender of Frances (Reade) Kingsmill, who, by the context of these bequests, would be one of the daughters of Francis Reade of Faccombe. She must have been married by 1656, since her eldest son William Kingsmill was matriculated at Magdalen Hall, Oxford, on 14 March 1672/3, aged 16.[36] The other two Reade girls were not yet married in 1658, which is why Anne Woolley remembered them, and not Frances, with additional cash bequests.

13.  Frances Reade, second child and eldest daughter,[37] baptised at Faccombe, 25 Mar. 1637,[38] married, as his first wife, John Kingsmill, Esq, of Andover, Hampshire, born c.1626, Major of the Regiment of Foot of Andover extra, son and heir of Rev William Kingsmill, BD, New College, Oxford 1618,[39] Vicar of Portland, co. Dorset 1642, by Margaret, daughter of Rev Robert Pistor, MA, Balliol College, Oxford 1578,[40] minister of Havant, Hampshire.[41] John Kingsmill had issue by his wife, Frances, two sons, William and John, whom both died s.p., and four daughters who were his co-heirs.[42]

John Kingsmill’s will, made 26 Aug 1693, was proved 6 June 1694.[43] In it he left “unto my sonne in Law Mr. James Tazwell All my Mannors Messuages Tenements Lands and Hereditaments whatsoever scituate lying and being within the kingdome of Ireland and to his heires forever . . . . All the rest of my goods and chattles not herein before bequeathed I give and bequeath unto my said sonne James Tazwell whome I make full and sole Executor of this my last Will and Testament. “

John Kingsmill owned two landed estates in Ireland that had belonged to the Kingsmills since the Ulster Plantation.[44] In 1684, Constance, his youngest daughter and co-heir, in conjunction with her husband, William Grove, purchased her father’s estate in the manor of Kingstown, County Donegal.[45] The other Kingsmill estate was in the manor of Caslefin, County Donegal; this passed to James Tazewell by the will. However, after John Kingsmill’s death, Anne Tazewell’s two older sisters and co-heirs, Mary and Frances, in conjunction with their husbands, prosecuted and defended suits against James Tazewell in the Courts of Chancery and Exchequer, over the validity of the will.[46]

14. Anne Kingsmill, third daughter and co-heiress,[47] married, by license dated 30 June 1684, with her father’s consent, James Tazewell [junior], of Limington, Somerset. Anne was aged about 22, James aged about 33.[48] James Tazewell was born at Limington, 20 Feb. 1650/1, oldest son and heir of James Tazewell [senior] of London, merchant, by his first wife, Elizabeth Upsal.[49] Elizabeth, first wife of James Tazewell [senr.], died in 1667, and he married, secondly, by license dated 20 May 1671, Elizabeth,[50] widow of Thomas Toking of London, and daughter of Reverend William Kingsmill, vicar of Portland, thus Anne Kingsmill’s aunt, at which point Anne’s future husband, James Tazewell the younger, became her cousin by marriage.[51]

The elder James Tazewell held the manors of South Brent, Berrow, and Limington, Somerset, as well as estates in Dorset and Devon. In politics he was a puritan, and politically active enough during the Civil War to have published, in 1648, a pamphlet, Ten necessary Quaeries Touching the Personall Treatie, very usefull and necessary to be considered; also A Right Description of a Cavalier, with some drops to quench the fiery Bull of Colchester. On the cover of the pamphlet, he describes himself as a “true lover of King, Parliament, Truth and Peace.”[52]

James Tazewell [senior] was accused of barratry and committed to the Fleet prison in London, 4 March, 1681/2, being bound in a recognizance of £500. Eventually, he was convicted of barratry and kept in the Fleet until his death, 26 March 1683.[53] James Tazewell [junior], of Limington, was then sued on behalf of his father’s recognisance. As a result, he petitioned the King to be discharged from his father’s recognisances by Privy Seal. On 5 March 1685, a report from Laurence Hyde, Earl of Rochester and Lord High Treasurer,[54] to the king on the petition of James Tazewell [junr.] says, “Petitioner is well esteemed by the gentry of the country and is an object of mercy.”[55]

One of the brothers of James Tazewell [junr.] was Rev William Tazewell [usually spelled Taswell], rector of Newington, Surrey, whose brief undated autobiography, begun about 1700 and continued sporadically in the 1720s, was published in 1852 in the Camden Miscellany.[56] In the memoir William recalls penurious years in the 1670s, when, following the remarriage of their father James [senr.] to Elizabeth Kingsmill, their father had “indulged his new bride” and withdrawn his allowances from his young adult sons “that he might live more luxuriously with her. Upon that account my elder brother [i.e. James junr.] went into the navy, and was in three engagements against the Dutch; and afterwards retired to India in the East as a merchant. My younger brother sailed to Jamaica, where he remained till my father’s death.”[57]

Both James and the younger brother, Stephen, returned to live at Limington only around the time of their father’s death, or perhaps after his conviction and imprisonment (events altogether omitted in William’s memoir). At the time William wrote, his elder brother James [junr.] was living on the family estate at Limington, married, with seven children, and his wife pregnant with their eighth.

15.  William Tazewell, third son but eventual heir, was baptised at Limington, Somerset, 17 July 1690.[58] In 1715, he emigrated to Virginia, settling in Northampton County, where he married, 10 June 1723, Sophia, daughter of Henry Harmanson, of Northampton County, by his 2nd wife, Gertrude, daughter of Col. Southey Littleton, of Accomack County.[59] They had four sons and three surviving daughters.[60]

William Tazewell was a lawyer by profession and a planter, holding about 2,000 acres at the time of his death.[61] He is attested as a captain in the militia of Northampton County on 8 October 1728.[62] He died 6 July 1752, and was buried at Elkington, Northampton County. William Tazewell made his will on 29 Oct 1751, proved 19 Sept 1752.[63] His widow, Sophia, made her will on 27 Oct 1753, proved 8 Jan 1754.[64] The inventory of William Tazewell’s estate contains, in part, the following:

1 Book Case & a Parcel of Law Books; 18 Leather chairs; 1 pair of money Scales and Weights; 1 Coffee Mill and 2 Coffee pots; wearing apparel; 1 fine hat; 1 Silver Watch; 18 Silver Spoons; 1 Silver Tankard; 1 Pair Old Silver Shoe Buckles; 1 Silver Gun; 1 Pair of Pistols & Holsters; 4 Guns; 1 Sword & Belt; 1 pair of Spectacles; 1 Large and 1 small Canoe; 29 Geese; 3 Lambs; 81 Hogs; 85 Sheep; 80 Head of Cattle; 4 Cows, 2 Calves & 2 Yearlings; 13 Horses [each is named] and 1 Foal; 32 Bushels of Wheat; 1,249 Bushels of Corn; 952 Bushels of Oats; 6,187 Pounds of Tobacco; 15 Bushels of Salt; 180 Gallons of Boiled Cyder; 15 Pounds of Washed Wool; 28 Pounds of Feathers; 8 Hides of Sole Leather; 12 Hides in the Tan Fat; 9 Plows & 7 Harrowes; and 24 Negro Slaves [each is named].[65]

Notes on Heraldry: Tazewell, Kingsmill, and Reade

Although no surviving evidence of his personal use of arms has been noted, William Tazewell joins the finite number of colonial and early-national American settlers with documented right to a coat of arms from the mother county, as his paternal grandfather’s pedigree and arms were entered in the Visitation of London of 1664.[66] In the 1940 edition of that visitation the arms are blazoned Vairy, ermine & purpure, on a chief [   ] a lion passant [   ] [i.e. tinctures are missing for the lion and the chief], with crest, a demi-lion rampant [   ] holding a chaplet [   ] between its paws [i.e. no tinctures]. In addition, William Tazewell’s mother Anne (Kingsmill) Tazewell was an heraldic heiress of her father, Major John Kingsmill of Andover, Hampshire, who bore Argent, semy of crosses crosslet fitchy sable, a chevron ermines between three mill-rinds of the second and a chief of the third, an annulet for a difference.[67] Therefore William Tazewell, as one of her sons, could by right quarter the Kingsmill arms with his paternal Tazewell arms.

The arms of Reade of Faccombe are also of interest in an American context because, while William Tazewell could not quarter Reade arms (since his grandmother Frances (Reade) Kingsmill was not an heraldic heiress), nevertheless the Faccombe Reade arms belonged by right to his kinsman, the Virginia settler Colonel George Reade. Like the Tazewell arms, the Reade arms are only attested without all their tinctures. Timothy Duke, Chester Herald at the College of Arms, reports that the College’s manuscript of the visitation of Hampshire of 1622/4 contains a drawing of a seal used by the Reade family, without any indication of tinctures; the arms appear to be gutty a cross flory fitchy, with no crest.[68] This manuscript cross-references a warrant dated 16 March 1640, from the Earl Marshall to Sir William le Neve, Clarenceux, noting that the Reades of Faccombe had used a seal blazoned per pale semy gutty a cross flory fitchy, but that the Reades themselves were uncertain of the tinctures; Clarenceux was instructed to determine the proper tinctures of the arms, and assign a crest, though there is no record of any grant which effected this.[69] The only reference to Faccombe Reade arms with tinctures found now at the College is in an early eighteenth-century armory compiled by Piers Mauduit, Windsor Herald, which blazons their arms as sable gutty . . . a cross moline fitchy or, omitting only a tincture for the gutty drops.[70] Because these Reade arms were considered to be ancient at the time of the visitation of 1622/4, and in the Earl Marshall’s 1640 warrant, they can be presumed to have been borne by right by Col. George Reed (whose father Robert was a younger son of the head of the family, Andrew, who had died in 1623), although no surviving evidence of Colonel Reade’s use of these or any arms has been noted.

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank Timothy Duke, MA, Chester Herald, who kindly communicated College of Arms manuscripts. Also, I would like to thank Nathaniel L Taylor, PhD, for kindly providing the firsthand account of the Taswell or Tazewell family from the memoir of William Taswell, DD, and for structuring this article.

Bibliography

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Badham, Sally & Malcolm Norris. Early Incised Slabs and Brasses from the London Marblers. London: Society of Antiquaries of London, 1999.

Bockstruck, Lloyd DeWitt. Virginia’s Colonial Soldiers. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1988.

Boddie, John Bennett. Historical Southern Families, vol.2, 174-84. Redwood City: Pacific Coast Publishers, 1958.

Browning, Charles. “Some Items from the Parish Register of St. Martin-in-the-Fields, in London, of interest to Descendants of Col. George Reade.” William and Mary Quarterly 12: 65-66, 1904.

Burke, Sir Bernard. A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Landed Gentry of Ireland. London: Harrison & Sons, 1899.

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Doran, J. The History and Antiquities of the Town and Borough of Reading in Berkshire, etc. Reading: Samuel Reader, 1835.

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Grigsby, Hugh Blair. Discourse on the Life and Character of the Hon. Littleton Waller Tazewell. Norfolk, Virginia: J D Ghiselin, Junr., 1860.

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Money, W, ed. A perfect booke: of all the landes as well arable as pasture, meadowes, wastes and waste grounds..., within the hundreds of Evenger, Chutlye, Kingsclere, Pastroe, and Overton; etc. Newbury: W J Blaket, 1901.

Nottingham, Stratton. The Marriage License Bonds of Northampton County, Virginia, From 1706 to 1854. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1929.

Phillimore, W P W & J Sadler, eds. Wiltshire Parish Registers: Marriages vol.7. London: Phillimore & Co., 1908.

Richardson, Douglas. Plantagenet Ancestry. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2004.

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Shaw, William A, ed. Calendar of Treasury Books Preserved in the Public Record Office, Vol. VIII, part 1: 1685–89. London: H M Stationary Office,1923.

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Tanswell, John. “Memoranda Relating to the Taswell Family.” In The Archaeological Mine, a collection of Antiquarian Nuggets, relating to the County of Kent, 2, ed. A J Dunkin, 72–75. London: Oxford University Press, 1856.

Tanswell, John. “Memorials of the Manor and Rectory of Limington,” Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, proceedings during the years 1856–7, 7 (2): 1-8, 1858.

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 Notes


[1]     Contact email:   This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

[2]     Hugh Blair Grigsby, Discourse on the Life and Character of the Hon. Littleton Waller Tazewell (1860), 6–7; Matthew M Wise, The Littleton heritage: Some American descendants of Col. Nathaniel Littleton (1605–1654) of Northampton Co., Virginia and his royal forebears (1997), 191.

[3]     Stratton Nottingham, The Marriage License Bonds of Northampton County, Virginia, From 1706 to 1854 (1929), 95.

[4]        Wise, op.cit. (1997), 192, 194 and 196.

[5]        An additional Tazewell County was created in the state of Illinois in 1827.

[6]     Along with the works cited in note 2, see Calvert Walke Tazewell, Genealogy of the Tazewells and Allied Families: with sketches of Tazewell, Bradford, and Goode (1990).

[7]     Thomas P Taswell-Langmead, “Taswell Pedigree” and “Notes to Taswell Pedigree”, Miscellanea Genealogica at Heraldica. New Series 1 (1874): 254–256, at 255. The visitation pedigree first extracted in 1874 was subsequently published in B A Whitmore & A W Hughes Clarke (eds.), “London Visitation Pedigrees, 1664”, Harleian Society Publications 92 (1940): 134. Other English publications with information on this Tazewell family include John Tanswell, “Memoranda Relating to the Taswell Family,” The Archaeological Mine, a collection of Antiquarian Nuggets, relating to the County of Kent 2 (1856): 72–75; and John Tanswell, “Memorials of the Manor and Rectory of Limington,” Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, proceedings 1856–7, 7(2): (1858), 1–8. A first hand account of the immediate family, though not mentioning William of Virginia, is found in William Taswell, “Autobiography and Anecdotes of William Taswell, DD,” in The Camden Miscellany 2, ed. George Percy Elliott, (1853) 40pp.

[8]     G D Squibb, ed., “The Visitation of Hampshire and the Isle of Wight 1686, made by Sir Henry St. George, Knight, Clarenceux King of Arms,” Harleian Society Publications, New Series 10, (1991): 36.

[9]     The double-sibling marriage in which two sons of Andrew Reade of Faccombe, Hampshire, married two daughters of Sir Thomas Windebank, is found in the pedigree of Windebank of St Martin in the Fields, in George Armytage, ed., “Middlesex Pedigrees as Collected by Richard Mundy,” Harleian Society Publications 65 (1914): 123.

[10]    George Washington’s Reade–Windebank ancestry has long been known in print, since it was initially explored by T R Rootes, “The Rootes Family,” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 4 (1896): 204–11, which notes the Reade-Windebank marriage. See also John Bennett Boddie, Historical Southern Families, vol.2 (1958), 174–84, for an extensive genealogy of the Faccombe Reade family. Gary Boyd Roberts, ed., Ancestors of American Presidents, (2009), presents a definitive bibliography of published sources for Washington’s ancestry including the Faccombe Reades.

[11]    The first ten generations can be found in reference works tracing descent of American colonial settlers from English monarchs, eg Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, (2004), beginning at p.606 for Frances Dymoke and Sir Thomas Windebank.

[12]   Leslie Stephen & Sidney Lee, eds., Dictionary of National Biography,[DNB] (1885–1900), s.n. “Windebank, Sir Thomas” 62: 162.

[13]   Stephen & Lee, DNB, op.cit., s.n. “Windebank, Sir Thomas” 62: 163.

[14]   Will of Sir Thomas Windebank or Windbank, one of the Clerkes of His Majesty's Signet of Saint Martin in the Fields, Middlesex, proved 19 May 1613: The National Archives, PROB 11/111, Image Ref. Nos. 540/1468 & 540/1469.

[15]   Rev A Roland Maddison, Lincolnshire Wills. Second Series A.D. 1600–17 (1891), 83.

[16]   Stephen & Lee, DNB, op.cit., s.n. “Windebank, Sir Francis.”

[17]   Charles Browning, “Some Items from the Parish Register of St. Martin-in-the-Fields, in London, of interest to Descendants of Col. George Reade,” William and Mary Quarterly 12 (1904): 65–66.

[18]   P W Hasler, ed., The History of Parliament-The House of Commons 1558–1603, Vol.3 (1981), 281.

[19]   Funeral Certificate of Sir Thomas Windebank, who died on 23 Oct. 1607, College of Arms, London, MS I.16, 262, kindly communicated by Timothy Duke, Chester Herald.

[20]   W Money, ed., A perfect booke: of all the landes as well arable as pasture, meadowes, wastes and waste grounds..., within the hundreds of Evenger, Chutlye, Kingsclere, Pastroe, and Overton; etc. (1901), 100.
Sally Badham & Malcolm Norris, Early Incised Slabs and Brasses from the London Marblers (1999), 13.

[21]    A photograph, taken 13 July 2007, can be found online in a photostream by user “jmc4—Church Explorer,” at //www.flickr.com/photos/52219527@N00/808215853/">http://www.flickr.com/photos/52219527@N00/808215853/> [accessed May 2013].

[22]   Faccombe Parish Registers, 1580–1878, consulted on microfiche in the Hampshire County Record Office, Winchester. Also extracted in Boddie, op. cit. (1958) 2: 179.

[23]   Hannah Baker, Assistant Archivist, The Honourable Society of the Middle Temple, Middle Temple Archive, letter to the author, 23 July 2010.

[24]   Edward Reade, their eldest child, was baptised on 1 May 1636: Boddie, op. cit. (1958) 2:179.

[25]   Wiltshire and Swindon Archives, 212B/139 (27 Dec 1637), an indenture between “Edward Reade of Faccombe in the County of Southampton Esquire, Francis Reade of Faccombe aforsaid, Esquire, Frances Reade now wyfe of the said Francis Reade and daughter of Anthoney Shelley of the Citty of Newe Sarum in the Countie of Wiltes., gent., of the one parte, and Thomas Husey of Chilton foliat in the said County of Wiltes Esquire of the other partie . . .” This Edward Reade was apparently the husband of Bishop Cotton’s widow Elizabeth, whom he had married at Salisbury 22 Nov 1616 (W P W Phillimore & J Sadler, eds., Wiltshire Parish Registers: Marriages vol. 7 (1908), 8); he was also intimate with Francis and Frances (Shelley) Reade, whose son Edward was his godson. Edward Reade’s will, made 8 Dec 1635, and proved 6 Sep 1638 (The National Archives: PROB 11/177, Image Ref. No. 702/582) speaks of the “the greate love and frendshipp showed by francis Reade and his wife unto me in their loving enterteynment of me & my frendes in their house att faccombe,” and leaves them his household goods.

[26]   Joseph Foster, ed., Alumni Oxonienses: The Members of the University of Oxford, 1500–1714: Their Parentage, Birthplace, and year of Birth, with a Record of Their Degrees. Being The Matriculation Register of the University, (1891–92), 4:1343.
Anthony Shelley’s will, made 5 Feb 1612/3, proved 19 May 1613, named a daughter Frances, not yet married: PCC, The National Archives, PROB 11/121, Image Ref. No. 532/463.

[27]   Will of Henry Cotton, Bishop of Salisbury, proved 20 May 1615, named his daughter Patience Shelley, and her daughters (his granddaughters) Elizabeth, Patience, and Frances Shelley: PCC, The National Archives, PROB 11/125, Image Ref. No. 534/486.

[28]   Foster, Alumni Oxonienses, op.cit. (1891-2), 1:334.

[29]   Julian Lock, ODNB (2004), 13: 607.

[30]   G Payne Crawfurd, ed., The Registers of the Parish of St. Mary, Reading, Berks, 1538–1812, Vol.2: Marriages and Burials, (1892), 122.

[31]   John Doran, The History and Antiquities of the Town and Borough of Reading in Berkshire, etc. (1835), 20.

[32]   Andrew M Coleby, Central Government and the Localities: Hampshire 1649–1689 (1987), 81.

[33]   Winchester, Hampshire County Record Office, MS 40M63/3. Indenture dated 22 February 1659/60.

[34]   Faccombe Parish Registers, 1580–1878, consulted on microfiche in the Hampshire County Record Office, Winchester. Also extracted in Boddie, op. cit. (1958) 2: 179.

[35]   Will of Anne Woolley of Faccombe, Hants, proved 10 June 1658: The National Archives, PROB 11/277, Image Ref. No. 224/177.

[36]   Foster, Alumni Oxonienses, op.cit. (1891-2), 2:856.

[37]   Squibb, op.cit. (1991) 36.

[38]   Faccombe Parish Registers as extracted in Boddie, op.cit. (1958) 2:179.

[39]   Foster, Alumni Oxonienses, op.cit. (1891-2), 2:856.

[40]   Foster, Alumni Oxonienses, op.cit. (1891-2), 3:1168.

[41]   Sir Bernard Burke, A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Landed Gentry of Ireland (1899), 181, 235; Squibb, op.cit. (1991) 36.

[42]   Squibb, op.cit. (1991) 36.

[43]   Will of John Kingsmill of Andover, Hampshire, proved 6 June 1694: The National Archives, PROB 11/418, Image Ref. No. 503/479.

[44]   Rev George Hill, An Historical Account of the Plantation in Ulster at the Commencement of the Seventeenth Century, 1608–1620 (1877) 324, 518 [note 192], 523 [note 201]; Patrick Walsh, The Making of the Irish Protestant Ascendancy: The Life of William Conolly, 1662–1729. (2010), 71.
John Kingsmill of Andover inherited estates in Ireland from his uncle Sir John Kingsmill of Enham in Hampshire, Captain of the Horse in Ireland, 1620–29.

[45]   Burke, op.cit. (1899).

[46]   The National Archives, E134/12&13Wm3/Hil10 (Evans v. Philips), E134/13Wm3/East25 (Evans v. Philips), C6/303/35, 1693 (Tazewell v. Evans), C9/132/80, 1695 (Tazewell v. Evans), and PROB 18/23/11, 1694 (Taswell v. Evans).

[47]   Squibb, op.cit. (1991); Burke, op.cit. (1899), 235.

[48]   George J Armytage, ed., “Allegations for Marriage Licences Issued By The Vicar-General of the Archbishop of Canterbury, July 1679 to June 1687,” Harleian Society Publications 30 (1890): 170.

[49]   Taswell-Langmead, op.cit. (1874); Whitmore & Hughes Clarke, op.cit. (1940) 134.

[50]      Geo. J Armytage, ed., “Allegations for Marriage Licences issused by the Dean and Chapter of Westminster, 1558 to 1699,also for those issued by the Vicar-General of the Archbishop of Canterbury, 1660 to 1679” Harleian Society Publications 23 (1886): 190; Whitmore & Hughes Clarke, op.cit. (1940) 134–5.

[51]      Squibb, op.cit. (1991).

[52]      Thomas Pitt Taswell-Langmead, English Constitutional History from the Teutonic Conquest to the present time, 5th edn. (1896), 505–6.

[53]    William A Shaw, ed., Calendar of Treasury Books Preserved in the Public Record Office, Vol. VIII, part 1: 1685–89 (1923), 31; Whitmore & Hughes Clarke, op.cit. (1940), 134.

[54]    John Cannon, A Dictionary of British History (2009), 553.

[55]    Shaw, op.cit. (1923).

[56]      William Taswell, op.cit. (1853).

[57]   William Taswell, op.cit. (1853), 15–16.

[58]   Taswell-Langmead, op.cit. (1874), 256.

[59]   Nora Miller Turman & Mark C Lewis, “The Will of Ann Littleton of Northampton County, Virginia, 1656,” The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, 75 (1967): 11–21, at 16;
Wise, op.cit. (1997), 190–1; Taswell-Langmead, op.cit. (1874), 255.

[60]   Wise, op.cit. (1997), 190–1.

[61]   Wise, op.cit. (1997), 190.

[62]    Lloyd DeWitt Bockstruck, Virginia’s Colonial Soldiers (1988), 25.

[63]   Will of William Tazewell, recorded 19 Sept. 1752: Northampton County, Virginia, Wills & Inventories Book 20, 1750–1754, pp.325–27.

[64]   Will of Sophia Tazewell, recorded 8 Jan. 1754: Northampton County, Virginia, Wills & Inventories Book 20, 1750–1754, pp.482–83.

[65]   Appraisal of the estate of William Tazewell, recorded 10 October 1752: Northampton County, Virginia, Wills & Inventories, Book 20, 1750–1754, pp.339–43.

[66]    On American settlers with documented right to hereditary arms from their respective mother countries, see the “Roll of Arms” of the Committee on Heraldry of the New England Historic Genealogical Society, beginning with the New England Historical and Genealogical Register 82(1928):146–68; and continuing periodically through Register 146(1992):281–85. An omnibus reprint and continuation of the “Roll of Arms” is forthcoming (2013) from the New England Historic Genealogical Society, Boston, MA.

[67]    Squibb, op.cit. (1991), 36.

[68]   Three generation pedigree headed by Andrew Reade of Faccombe. College of Arms, London, MS C.19, 77b. Kindly communicated by Timothy Duke, Chester Herald.

[69]   Text of a warrant by the Earl Marshall to Sir William Le Neve, Clarenceux King of Arms (26 March 1640). College of Arms, London, MS Grants 2, folio 674. Kindly communicated by Timothy Duke, Chester Herald.

[70]   Blazon of arms for Reade of Hampshire (late 17c. and early 18c.). College of Arms, London, MS “EDN Alphabet”. Kindly communicated by Timothy Duke, Chester Herald.